Maratha King Shivaji

First Online: February 15, 2002
Page Last Updated: April 04, 2014

© K. L. Kamat
Maratha King Shivaji
Maratha King Shivaji

The rise of Shivaji and the Marathas is an important factor in the history of India. Shivaji (1627-1680 A.D.) was the founder of the Maratha kingdom.  He was greatly inspired by the heroes of Hindu mythologies and he considered it his mission to liberate India from the Islamic rulers.  At a young age, he conquered the forts of Torna, Raighad, and Purandar. He used the guerrilla tactics to confront even the mightiest of the empires (that of Moghul emperor Aurangjeb) India had known. He imposed a land tax called Chauth on the kingdoms he conquered and used it to build a powerful Hindu army. Shivaji was a brave and able administrator, and established a government that included such modern concepts as cabinet (Ashtapradhan mandal), foreign affairs (Dabir), and internal intelligence.

Timeline of Shivaji's Life

Year Historical Event
1627 Shivaji born in the hill fort of Shivner.
1643-47 Shivaji overran the hill forts of Kondana, Torana and Raigarh.
1647 Shivaji's Guardian Dadaji Khondev died.
1656 Shivaji conquered Javli from Chandra Rao More.
1657 Shivaji came into conflict with the Moghuls for the first time by making raids into Ahmednagar.
1659 Afzal Khan of Bijapur was killed by Shivaji.
1660 Moghul Governor Shaista Khan occupied Pune
1663 Shivaji made an attack on Shaistakhan's harem and wounded him.
1664 Shivaji raided and looted Surat.
1665 Jai Singh besieged the fort of Purandar and forced Shivaji to sign the treaty of Purandar.
1666 Shivaji escaped from Agra.
1670 Shivaji attacked Surat for the second time.
1674 Shivaji crowned himself at Raighad and assumed the title of Maharaja Chhatrapati.
1676 Shivaji's last campaign against Jijapuri Karnataka. Captured Jinji and Vellore.
1680 Shivaji died.

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